Postgraduate Studies is the basis for planning and progress of work in scientific research through specialized studies in all scientific fields. Development and advancement of postgraduate studies are considered of the most significant foundations for development plans in developed countries or countries on their way for development and progress. If there is good investment in postgraduate studies, they will be the real moving force towards advancement of community with all its aspects. The concept of postgraduate studies is: a study that begins where study of the first University grade (licentiate or bachelor) finished. It is over the cognitive level of skill and goes beyond it to knowledge of modern sciences in order to cope with world scientific and technological progress. Departments of Postgraduate Studies, from the scientific perspective, are diplomas and scientific degrees: master and PhD. First, diplomas are studies that tackle applied or academic curricula. Their period of study is one year at least. Second, scientific degrees are master and PhD.
It is a study that includes high level curricula, training in means of research and induction of results. It ends with preparing a thesis that is accepted by exam committee, gaining two postgraduate diplomas, one of them is in public law or private law (Faculty of Law), or an exam in the accurate specialization after discussion of the thesis. At some faculties, the thesis is presented in preparation for the exam and the student is not granted the degree unless he or she passes the final exams. The period of study is not less than two years with exception of the master that is preceded by pre-master studies or study of certain diplomas according to stipulations of internal bylaws of faculties.
It is based on innovative research. Its period of study is not less than two years ending with submitting an accepted thesis. There may be preparatory studies before registration for the PhD degree according to internal bylaws of faculties. At some faculties, such as Faculty of Medicine, the thesis is presented in preparation for gaining the PhD degree that cannot be granted unless the student passes theoretical, practical and oral exam. Neither the period of preparatory studies nor the period of exams that follow discussion of the thesis is considered part of the determined time "the two years".